UCAR Safety Manual
ISSUED: 1 June 93
EFFECTIVE: 1 June 93
Provides safe practices, policies, and procedures for entry into Total, Partial Permit Required confined spaces and meets regulatory requirements of OSHA 29 CFR 1910.146
Specially trained individual stationed outside Total, Partial Permit Required confined space who monitors/assures safety of employees inside space.
2.2 Confined Space
Space having adequate size and configuration for entry, with limited means of access or egress and not designed for continuous employee occupancy. Three types of confined spaces are Total Permit Required, Partial Permit Required, and No Permit Required (see definitions for each).
Specially trained individual assigned work in Total, Partial Permit Required confined spaces.
2.4 Entry supervisor
Specially trained individual with overall responsibility for Total, Partial Permit Required confined space work.
2.5 Hazardous Condition/Operations
Conditions/Operations presenting credible potential risk to employees inside confined spaces. Includes chemically toxic agents, explosive materials, hazardous atmosphere including oxygen deficiency, engulfing agents (flooding liquids etc.), or physical agents (fire, electricity etc.)
Individuals employed by companies, institutions, agencies, other than UCAR, who may perform Total, Partial Permit Required confined space entries on UCAR owned or controlled property.
Process by which confined spaces are protected against hazardous release of energy and/or materials.
2.8 No Permit Required Confined Space
Area meets definition of confined space but does not pose any credible potential hazard and therefore does not require any permit, review, or other procedures to enter.
2.9 Partial Permit Required Confined Space
Area meets definition of confined space but only credible potential condition/operation is potential
hazardous atmosphere. Requires continuous mechanical ventilation and partial permit.
2.10 Total Permit Required Confined Space
Area meets definition of confined space and has credible potential hazardous conditions/operations other than potential hazardous atmosphere. Requires continuous ventilation, attendant and rescue team.
Assures assigned employees and supervisors are qualified, properly trained, and skilled in safe conduct, potential hazards, and emergency procedures for Total, Partial Permit Required confined space operations. Provides approved, safe and properly functioning equipment and safety devices.
3.2 Entry Supervisors
Responsible for overall safety of operations. Knows, understands consequences, recognizes hazards of Total, Partial Permit Required confined space operations. Implements safety policies and procedures, assures employee training, assigns qualified employees to work tasks. Conducts on-site safety inspections, reviews and assures permits are properly filled out, and approves Total, Partial Permit Required confined space operations. Signs Total, Partial Permit Required confined space entry permits, terminates unsafe work practices or conditions, cancels permit when work completed. Notifies Health and Environmental Officer of unsafe working conditions, notifies Health and Environmental office of work routine changes, assures proper equipment available. Communicates potential hazards of confines spaces to employees. Verifies rescue services available and communication systems established. Removes unauthorized personnel. Oversees shift or personnel change. Coordinates entries with contractors.
3.3 Health and Environmental Office
Determines, designs, communicates, and administers Total, Partial Permit Required confined space entry program. Monitors and audits compliance to policies, procedures, and regulations, and reports non-compliant conditions to supervision for correction. Writes, publishes, and up-dates generic safety policies and procedures. Provides generic safety training. Identifies potential hazards of operations and communicates to supervisor. Takes appropriate actions to abate unsafe conditions, practices or activities. Conducts required testing for oxygen content, flammable gases and vapors, and potential toxic air contaminants. Determines level of protection necessary for entry (No, Partial or Total). Prescribes appropriate personnel protective equipment. Identifies and marks all permit required Total, Partial Permit Required confined spaces.
Conducts operations in safe manner compliant with organizational and regulatory policies, procedures, and requirements. Attends and participates in required training. Recognizes and understands potential hazards of operations. Reports out of tolerance conditions to supervisors, and discontinues any unsafe operation.
Know, understand consequences, recognize hazards of Total, Partial Permit Required confined space work. Knows behavioral affects of hazard exposure. Communicates and monitors actions of entrants. Remains outside of space. Orders evacuation if unsafe conditions could occur, entrants exhibit exposed behavior, outside conditions jeopardize safety of entrants. Warns entrants and orders evacuations. Prevents unauthorized individuals from entering spaces. Notifies supervision when unauthorized personnel enter space. Summons rescue help if needed. Performs non-entry rescue. Primarily dedicated to safety of operation. May only conduct other duties if they do not interfere.
Knows, understands consequences, recognizes hazards of operations. Knows how to use provided equipment. Maintains constant communication with attendant. Notifies attendant when there are signs of exposure or unsafe conditions could develop. Exit space whenever; orders given by attendant or supervisor, signs of symptoms of occur, unsafe condition may occur, evacuation alarm sounded.
Contractors to UCAR shall be required to submit written policies and procedures for Total, Partial Permit Required confined spaces which are at least as stringent as UCAR policies and procedures. Total, Partial Permit Required confined space entry by contractors must be coordinated with and approved by the UCAR entry supervisor and UCAR Health, Environment, and Safety office. The contractor shall be responsible for providing all training, equipment, testing, personnel and services for Total, Partial Permit Required confined space entry. UCAR will notify contractor of Total, Partial Permit Required confined space requirements, identify hazards and history of Total, Partial Permit Required confined spaces, review and approve contractors procedures, coordinate and approve joint entries, debrief contractor at conclusion of entry.
Be aware, confined spaces can be anywhere and everywhere. In this
picture the confined space is inside the wing of the plane.
All total and/or partial permit required confined spaces shall be identified and marked with hazard warnings by the Health, Environment and Safety office. Spaces shall be re-evaluated and re-classified if necessary when conditions change. The Health, Environment and Safety Office shall determine the appropriate category for each space and shall generate and keep data and documents regarding classification rationale.
4.2 Work Request
Responsible working group shall request permission from Health, Environment and Safety Office to perform Total, Partial Permit Required confined space work.
4.3 Site Evaluation
Health, Environment and Safety office shall review work request, determine potential hazards and establish appropriate confined space category (Total, Partial, No Permit required space.)
Click for larger image.
4.4 Total Permit Requirements
A Total Permit Required entry is necessary if the space meets definition of confined space and has hazards other than potential hazardous atmosphere. Minimum requirements as follows:
4.4.1 Identify conditions acceptable for entry and establish permit entry system, post permit at site. Permit system shall document all entry procedures identified below.
4.4.2 Isolate space from potential hazards as necessary for safe entry.
4.4.3 Purge, inert, flush, ventilate to eliminate atmospheric hazard.
4.4.4 Provide external barriers.
4.4.5 Continuously verify that conditions are acceptable for entry.
4.4.6 Provide, maintain and assure proper use equipment including air monitoring equipment for oxygen content, flammable gases, toxic materials, forced air ventilation, communications equipment, personnel protective equipment, lighting, external barriers and shields, ladders, rescue equipment
4.4.7 Perform pre-entry oxygen, flammability and toxicity air tests. Continuous monitoring required if sources cannot be isolated. Periodic monitoring required if sources can be isolated. Tests must be performed under direct supervision of Certified Industrial Hygienist. All results recorded on permit.
4.4.8 Provide one trained outside attendant for each space unless attendant can perform emergency actions without distracting from normal attendant duties for other spaces.
4.4.9 Develop and implement rescue plans, communications system and procedures.
4.4.10 Develop and implement a contractor entry system.
4.4.11 Review operations if unsafe condition may occur.
4.4.12 Retain all permits for one year and review entire entry program and make changes as necessary at least once per year.
4.4.13 Provide all information pertaining to entry including permit, tests, hazard evaluation etc. to employees involved.
Click for larger image.
4.5 Partial Permit Requirements
Partial permit requirements may be utilized if the only credible potential hazard involves potential hazardous atmosphere. In such situations the Health, Environment, and Safety office shall document hazard analysis. Continuous ventilation shall be provided at all times and documentation shall be made available to employees. Minimum requirements are as follows:
4.5.1 Eliminate hazards associated with lid removal.
4.5.2 Guard entrance with barriers.
4.5.3 Test atmosphere for oxygen content, flammable gases/vapors, and toxic materials by individual under direct supervision of Certified Industrial Hygienist. Periodic measurements shall be taken to verify same conditions.
4.5.4 Use continuous forced ventilation at all times. times. Source of air shall be clean.
4.5.5 Immediate evacuation of space if unsafe conditions exist.
4.5.6 Utilize abbreviated permit to document entry conditions and safety procedures. Post permit at site entrance.
4.5.7 Total Permit Requirements if conditions change and become potentially unsafe.
Employees involved with Total, Partial Permit Required confined space work shall be trained to assure understanding, knowledge, and skills necessary for safe performance and duties associated with entry.
5.1 Initial Training
Provided to following employees prior to work assignments involving Total, Partial Permit Required confined spaces.
5.1.1 Supervisors of employees working in/around Total, Partial Permit Required confined spaces.
5.1.2 Entrants into spaces.
5.1.3 Attendants assigned to spaces.
5.1.4 Rescue personnel assigned to spaces.
5.2 Additional Training
Provided if duties, conditions, or types of hazards change.
Re-training required if violations of procedures observed.
Certificates noting training date, trainer, employees name will be kept by Health, Environment, and Safety Office.
6.0 Rescue and Emergency Services
Necessary for all Total Permit Required confined spaces.
Requires confined space, first aid, CPR, and rescue equipment training at least annually and under conditions representative of actual spaces including rescue of dummies or actual people.
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